Main Article Content
Since its introduction, e-cigarettes have evoked strongly opposed views and much passion from both proponents and opponents. The proponents of e-cigarettes view the product as an effective smoking cessation tool and a potential savior for millions of smokers. They argue that the vapor based system in e-cigarettes is a much safer mode of nicotine delivery than the combustion system in conventional cigarettes. Opponents view it as a product that at best introduces new bad habits, renormalizes smoking and may even serve as a gateway to smoking in non-smokers.
The existing body of literature on the issue, while impressive, is far from conclusive. There is much more to be determined about e-cigarettes before informed decisions can be made about their safety and effectiveness. This article intends to summarize and analyze the scientific arguments raised from both perspectives on e-cigarettes.
- Authors publishing in the UOJM retain copyright of their articles, including all the drafts and the final published version in the journal.
- While UOJM does not retain any rights to the articles submitted, by agreeing to publish in UOJM, authors are granting the journal right of first publication and distribution rights of their articles.
- Authors are free to submit their works to other publications, including journals, institutional repositories or books, with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in UOJM.
- Copies of UOJM are distributed both in print and online, and all materials will be publicly available online. The journal holds no legal responsibility as to how these materials will be used by the public.
- Please ensure that all authors, co-authors and investigators have read and agree to these terms.
- Works are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
2. WHO. WHO framework convention on tobacco control. 2014.
3. Czoli CD, Hammond D, White CM. Electronic cigarettes in Canada: prevalence of use and perceptions among youth and young adults. Can J Public Health. 2014;105(2):97-102.
4. Millard FJ. The rising incidence of tuberculosis. J R Soc Med. 1996;89(9):497-500.
5. Environmental Protection Agency. Respiratory health effects of passive smoking: lung cancer and other disorders. 1992.
6. Pryor WA, Stone K. Oxidants in cigarette smoke. Radicals, hydrogen peroxide, peroxynitrate, and peroxynitrite. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1993;686:12-27; 27-18.
7. Goniewicz ML, Kuma T, Gawron M, Knysak J, Kosmider L. Nicotine Levels in Electronic Cigarettes. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. 2012;23(2):30-35
8. Burstyn I. Peering through the mist: systematic review of what the chemistry of contaminants in electronic cigarettes tells us about health risks. BMC Public Health. 2014;14(1):18.
9. Romagna G, Allifranchini E, Bocchietto E, Todeschi S, Esposito M, et al. Cytotoxicity evaluation of electronic cigarette vapor extract on cultured mammalian fibroblasts (ClearStream-LIFE): comparison with tobacco cigarette smoke extract. Inhal Toxicol. 2013;25(6):354-361.
10. Ambrose JA, Barua RS. The pathophysiology of cigarette smoking and cardiovascular disease: an update. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004;43(10):1731-1737.
11. Nitenberg A, Antony I. Effects of nicotine gum on coronary vasomotor responses during sympathetic stimulation in patients with coronary artery stenosis. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1999;34(5):694-699.
12. Zevin S, Jacob P, 3rd, Benowitz NL. Dose-related cardiovascular and endocrine effects of transdermal nicotine. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1998;64(1):87-95.
13. Ludviksdottir D, Blondal T, Franzon M, Gudmundsson TV, Sawe U. Effects of nicotine nasal spray on atherogenic and thrombogenic factors during smoking cessation. J Intern Med. 1999;246(1):61-66.
14. Bruin JE, Gerstein HC, Holloway AC. Long-Term Consequences of Fetal and Neonatal Nicotine Exposure: A Critical Review. Toxicological Sciences. 2010;116(2):364-374.
15. FDA. Laboratory Analysis of Electronic Cigarettes 2014.
16. Chen I-L. FDA Summary of Adverse Events on Electronic Cigarettes. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. 2012;15(2):615-6
17. Bullen C, Howe C, Laugesen M, McRobbie H, Parag V, et al. Electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation: a randomised controlled trial. The Lancet. 2013;382(9905):1629-1637.
18. Dockrell M, Morison R, Bauld L, McNeill A. E-Cigarettes: Prevalence and Attitudes in Great Britain. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. 2013;15(10):1737-44
19. Siegel MB, Tanwar KL, Wood KS. Electronic cigarettes as a smoking-cessation: tool results from an online survey. Am J Prev Med. 2011;40(4):472-475.
20. Schiller JS, Ni H. Cigarette smoking and smoking cessation among persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Health Promot. 2006;20(5):319-323.
21. Dutra LM, Glantz SA. Electronic cigarettes and conventional cigarette use among U.S. adolescents: a cross-sectional study. JAMA Pediatr. 2014;168(7):610-617.
22. Bunnell RE, Agaku IT, Arrazola R, Apelberg BJ, Caraballo RS, et al. Intentions to smoke cigarettes among never-smoking U.S. middle and high school electronic cigarette users, National Youth Tobacco Survey, 2011-2013. Nicotine Tob Res. 2014.
23. McCarthy M. E-cigarette companies target youth, US congressional study finds. BMJ. 2014
24. Duke JC, Lee YO, Kim AE, Watson KA, Arnold KY, et al. Exposure to electronic cigarette television advertisements among youth and young adults. Pediatrics. 2014;134(1):e29-36.
25. CDC. E-cigarette use more than doubles among U.S. middle and high school students from 2011-2012. 2013.
26. CMA. 8th National Report Card on Health Care. 2008
27. Lee S, Grana RA, Glantz SA. Electronic Cigarette Use Among Korean Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Study of Market Penetration, Dual Use, and Relationship to Quit Attempts and Former Smoking. Journal of Adolescent Health.54(6):684-690.
28. Administration UF (2012) Smoking-related Fires in residential buildings (2008-2010).
29. Novotny T, Lum K, Smith E, Wang V, Barnes R. Cigarettes Butts and the Case for an Environmental Policy on Hazardous Cigarette Waste. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2009;6(5):1691-1705.
30. Chang H. Research gaps related to the environmental impacts of electronic cigarettes. Tob Control. 2014;23 Suppl 2:ii54-58.
31. Schober W, Szendrei K, Matzen W, Osiander-Fuchs H, Heitmann D, et al. Use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) impairs indoor air quality and increases FeNO levels of e-cigarette consumers. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2014;217(6):628-637.
32. Czogala J, Goniewicz ML, Fidelus B, Zielinska-Danch W, Travers MJ, et al. Secondhand Exposure to Vapors From Electronic Cigarettes. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. 2013.
33. Yudkin P, Hey K, Roberts S, Welch S, Murphy M, et al. Abstinence from smoking eight years after participation in randomised controlled trial of nicotine patch. BMJ. 2003;327(7405):28-29.
34. Moore D, Aveyard P, Connock M, Wang D, Fry-Smith A, et al. Effectiveness and safety of nicotine replacement therapy assisted reduction to stop smoking: systematic review and meta-analysis.2009;22(33):568-580
35. Wollscheid KA, Kremzner ME. Electronic cigarettes: safety concerns and regulatory issues. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2009;66(19):1740-1742.