Personal goals of women recently diagnosed with breast cancer: Protocol for a cohort study

Main Article Content

Andrea Janette Chow
Dean Anthony Fergusson
Dugald Seely
Sarah Young
Anne Pitman
Julie Ennis
Sarah Asad
Justin Presseau

Abstract

Objectives: This study aims to identify the personal goals of women with breast cancer, to describe the characteristics of partici- pants’ personal goals over four months, and to identify barriers and facilitators to their pursuit.

Methods: This protocol outlines plans to conduct a prospective cohort study. We will recruit women participating in the Ottawa In- tegrative Cancer Centre’s Head Start program (an integrative oncology psychoeducational program in Ottawa, Canada), and those on the program’s waiting list if possible. We anticipate a sample size of approximately 18 to 36 women. Prior to the beginning of Head Start, participants will identify their current personal goals and rate them on various dimensions on a questionnaire. At one and three months, participants will re-assess their goals and their goal pursuit. In a one-on-one interview at three months, they will identify barriers and facilitators to the pursuit of their goals. We will analyze quantitative data using descriptive and inferential statistics, and qualitative data using thematic content analysis.

Conclusion: Findings from this study will identify important information about the personal goals of women recently diagnosed with breast cancer that can help to support the process of positive goal adjustment and enhance support to these women. 

Résumé

Objectifs : Cette étude vise à identifier les objectifs personnels des femmes atteintes d’un cancer du sein, à décrire les caractéristiques des objectifs personnels des participantes sur une période de quatre mois, et à identifier les obstacles et les facilitateurs à leur poursuite.

Méthodes : Ce protocole décrit les plans pour mener une étude de cohorte prospective. Nous recruterons des femmes qui participeront au programme Head Start du Centre de cancérologie intégrative d’Ottawa (un programme psychopédagogique intégratif en oncologie à Ottawa, au Canada) et celles qui sont sur la liste d’attente du programme, si possible. Nous prévoyons un échantillon d’environ 18 à 36 femmes. Avant le début de Head Start, les participantes identifieront leurs objectifs personnels actuels et les noteront sur différentes dimensions dans un questionnaire. À un et trois mois, les participantes réévalueront leurs objectifs et la poursuite de leur objectif. Dans une entrevue individuelle à trois mois, elles identifieront les obstacles et les facilitateurs à la poursuite de leurs objectifs. Nous analyserons les données quantitatives à l’aide de statistiques descriptives et inférentielles, et les données qualitatives à l’aide d’analyses de contenu thématiques.

Conclusion : Les résultats de cette étude permettront d’identifier des informations importantes sur les objectifs personnels des femmes récemment diagnostiquées avec un cancer du sein qui peuvent aider à soutenir le processus d’ajustement positif des objectifs et améliorer le soutien à ces femmes. 

 

Article Details

Section
Research

References

1. Ryan RM, Deci EL. Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. Am Psychol. 2000;55(1):68–78.

2. Austin JT, Vancouver JB. Goal constructs in psychology: Structure, process, and content. Psychol Bull. 1996;120(3):338–75.

3. Elliot A, Thrash T. Achievement goals and the hierarchical model of achievement motivation. Educ Psychol Rev. 2001;13(2):139–56.

4. Emmons RA. Personal strivings: An approach to personality and subjective well-being. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1986;51(5):1058–68.

5. Little BR. Personal projects: a rationale and method for investigation. Environ Behav. 1983;15(3):273–309.

6. Little B. Generative Contexts of Personal Projects Analysis. In: Little BR, Philips SD, Salmela-Aro K, eds. Personal project pursuit: goals, action, and human flourishing. Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associations; 2007. 3-49 p.

7. Palys TS, Little BR. Perceived life satisfaction and the organization of personal project systems. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1983;44(6):1221–30.

8. Locke EA, Latham GP. Building a practically useful theory of goal setting and task motivation: A 35-year odyssey. Am Psychol. 2002;57(9):705–17.

9. Peterman A, Lecci L. Personal projects in health and illness. In: Little BR, Philips SD, Salmela-Aro K, eds. Personal project pursuit: goals, action, and human flourishing. Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associations; 2007. 329-53 p.

10. Hullmann SE, Robb SL, Rand KL. Life goals in patients with cancer: a systematic review of the literature: Life goals in patients with cancer. Psy- chooncology. 2016;25(4):387–99.

11. Sulkers E, Janse M, Brinksma A et al. A longitudinal case–control study on goals in adolescents with cancer. Psychol Health. 2015;30(9):1075–87.

12. Stefanic N, Caputi P, Iverson DC. Investigating physical symptom burden and personal goal interference in early-stage breast cancer patients. Support Care Cancer. 2014;22(3):713–20.

13. Wanchai A, Armer JM, Stewart BR. Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use Among Women With Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review. Clin J Oncol Nurs. 2010 ;14(4):E45-E55.

14. Greenlee H, Balneaves LG, Carlson LE et al. Clinical practice guidelines on the use of integrative therapies as supportive care in patients treated for breast cancer. JNCI Monogr. 2014;2014(50):346–58.

15. Verhoef MJ, Mulkins A, Boon H. Integrative health care: how can we determine whether patients benefit? J Altern Complement Med. 2005;11(supplement 1):s-57–s-65.

16. Wallenius MA. Personal project content and stress: relations to subjective health and depressive mood. Soc Indic Res. 2007;81(1):35–50.

17. Little B, Gee T. The methodology of Personal Projects Analysis: four modules and a funnel. In: Little BR, Philips SD, Salmela-Aro K, eds. Personal project pursuit: goals, action, and human flourishing. Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associations; 2007. 51–93 p.

18. Vroman K, Chamberlain K, Warner R. A Personal Projects Analysis: examining adaptation to low back pain. J Health Psychol. 2009;14(5):696–706.

19. Boersma SN, Maes S, Joekes K, Dusseldorp E. Goal processes in relation to goal attainment: predicting health-related quality of life in myocardial infarction patients. J Health Psychol. 2006;11(6):927–41.

20. Presseau J, Sniehotta FF, Francis JJ, Gebhardt WA. With a little help from my goals: Integrating intergoal facilitation with the theory of planned behaviour to predict physical activity. Br J Health Psychol. 2010;15(4):905–19.

21. Presseau J, Boyd E, Francis JJ, Sniehotta FF. Goal conflict and goal facilitation in community-based cardiac rehabilitation: A theory-based interview study. Psychol Health Med. 2015;20(2):227–38.

22. Gollwitzer PM, Brandstätter V. Implementation Intentions and Effective Goal Pursuit. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1997;73(1):186–99.

23. Paterson C, Thomas K, Manasse A, Cooke H, Peace G. Measure Yourself Concerns and Wellbeing (MYCaW): An individualised questionnaire for evaluating outcome in cancer support care that includes complementary therapies. Complement Ther Med. 2007;15(1):38–45.

24. Braun V, Clarke V. Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qual Res Psychol. 2006;3(2):77–101.

25. Elliot A, Friedman R. Approach-avoidance: a central characteristic of personal goals. In: Little BR, Philips SD, Salmela-Aro K, eds. Personal project pursuit: goals, action, and human flourishing. Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associations; 2007. 97–118 p.

26. Wiese B. Successful Pursuit of Personal Goals and Subjective Well-Being. In: Little BR, Philips SD, Salmela-Aro K, eds. Personal project pursuit: goals, action, and human flourishing. Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associations; 2007. 301–25 p.

27. Hsieh H-F, Shannon SE. Three Approaches to Qualitative Content Analysis. Qual Health Res. 2005;15(9):1277–88.

28. Stanton AL, Wiley JF, Krull JL et al. Depressive episodes, symptoms, and trajectories in women recently diagnosed with breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2015;154(1):105–15.

29. Weisman AD, Worden JW. The existential plight in cancer: significance of the first 100 days. Psychiatry Med. 1976;7(1):1–15.

30. Zabora J, Brintzenhofeszoc K, Curbow B, Hooker C, Piantadosi S. The prevalence of psychological distress by cancer site. Psychooncology. 2001;10(1):19–28.

31. Henselmans I, Fleer J, de Vries J, Baas PC, Sanderman R, Ranchor AV. The adaptive effect of personal control when facing breast cancer: Cognitive and behavioural mediators. Psychol Health. 2010 ;25(9):1023–40.

32. Pinquart M, Fröhlich C, Silbereisen RK. Testing models of change in life goals after a cancer diagnosis. J Loss Trauma. 2008;13(4):330–51.

33. Janse M, Fleer J, Smink A, Sprangers MAG, Ranchor AV. Which goal ad- justment strategies do cancer patients use? A longitudinal study. Psychooncology. 2016;25(3):332–8.

34. Stefanic N, Caputi P, Lane L, Iverson DC. Exploring the nature of situational goal-based coping in early-stage breast cancer patients: a contextual approach. Eur J Oncol Nurs. 2015;19:604-11.

35. Wrosch C, Scheier MF, Miller GE, Schulz R, Carver CS. Adaptive self-regulation of unattainable goals: goal disengagement, goal reengagement, and subjective well-being. Pers Soc Psychol Bull. 2003;29(12):1494–508.

36. Schroevers M, Kraaij V, Garnefski N. How do cancer patients manage unattainable personal goals and regulate their emotions? Br J Health Psychol. 2008;13(3):551–62.