The Disproportionate Impact of COVID-19 on Residents of Long-Term Care Homes

Main Article Content

David Nash

Article Details



1. Bronca T. COVID-19: A Canadian timeline [Internet]. Canada: Canadian Healthcare Network; 2020 Apr 8 [cited 2021 Feb 13]. Available from:
2. Vogel L. COVID-19: A timeline of Canada’s first-wave response [Internet]. Canada: CMAJ; 2020 [cited 2021 Feb 13]. Available from:
3. Government of Canada. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Epidemiology update [Internet]. Canada: Government of Canada; 2021 [cited 2021 Feb 13]. Available from:
4. Canadian Institute for Health Information. Pandemic Experience in the Long-Term Care Sector How Does Canada Compare With Other Countries? [Internet]. Ottawa, ON: CIHI; 2020 [cited 2021 Feb 13]. Available from:
5. Webster P. COVID-19 highlights Canada’s care home crisis. Lancet (London, England) [Internet]. 2021;397(10270):183. Available from:
6. Ontario Long-Term Care Association. The role of long-term care [Internet]. Canada: OTCLA; 2019 [cited 2021 Feb 13]. Available from:
7. Santesmasses D, Castro JP, Zenin AA, Shindyapina A V., Gerashchenko M V., Zhang B, et al. COVID-19 is an emergent disease of aging. Aging Cell. 2020;19(10):1–10.
8. National Center for Health Statistics. COVID-19 Mortality Overview [Internet]. USA: CDC; 2021 [cited 2021 Feb 13]. Available from:
9. Mueller AL, Mcnamara MS, Sinclair DA. Why does COVID-19 disproportionately affect older people?. Aging (Albany NY). 2020;12(10):9959–81.
10. Hewitt J, Carter B, Vilches-Moraga A, Quinn TJ, Braude P, Verduri A, et al. The effect of frailty on survival in patients with COVID-19 (COPE): a multicentre, European, observational cohort study. Lancet Public Heal. 2020;5(8):e444–51.
11. Díez-Villanueva P, Salamanca J, Rojas A, Alfonso F. Importance of frailty and comorbidity in elderly patients with severe aortic stenosis. J Geriatr Cardiol. 2017;14(6):379–82.

12. Ontario Health Coalition. Situation Critical: Planning, Access, Levels of Care and Violence in Ontario’s Long-Term Care [Internet]. Toronto, ON: Ontario Health Coalition; 2019 [cited 2021 Feb 13]. Available from:
13. McGregor MJ, Harrington C. COVID-19 and long-term care facilities: Does ownership matter? Cmaj. 2020;192(33):E961–2.
14. Holroyd-Leduc JM, Laupacis A. Continuing care and COVID-19: A Canadian tragedy that must not be allowed to happen again. Cmaj. 2020;192(23):E632–3.
15. Liu M, Maxwell CJ, Armstrong P, Schwandt M, Moser A, McGregor MJ, et al. COVID-19 in long-term care homes in Ontario and British Columbia. Cmaj. 2020;192(47):E1540–6.
16. Canadian Institute for Health Information. Long-term care homes in Canada: How many and who owns them? [Internet]. Canada: CIHI; 2020 [cited 2021 Feb 13]. Available from:,%25%20not%2Dfor%2Dprofit.
17. Stall NM, Jones A, Brown KA, Rochon PA, Costa AP. For-profit long-term care homes and the risk of COVID-19 outbreaks and resident deaths. Cmaj. 2020;192(33):E946–55.